Decentralized Interleaving of Parallel-connected Buck Converters

Mohit Sinha, Jason Poon, Brian B. Johnson, Miguel Rodriguez, Sairaj V. Dhople

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


We present a decentralized control strategy that yields switch interleaving for parallel-connected dc-dc buck converters. Compared to state-of-the-art methods that are distributed at best, the proposed architecture requires no communication, and hence, presents a variety of advantages with regard to reliability, modularity, and cost. The method is based on the digital implementation of the dynamics of a Liénard-type oscillator circuit as the controller for the converters. Each controller only requires the locally measured output current to synthesize the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) carrier waveform. The intrinsic electrical coupling between converters drives the nonlinear-oscillator-based controllers to converge to an interleaved state with uniform phase spacing across PWM carriers, independent of the number of converters, the load, and initial conditions. We provide analytical guarantees for existence and stability of the interleaved state as well as extensive hardware results for a system of five 120 W 48 V-to-12 V dc-dc buck converters that demonstrate convergence to the interleaved state in the face of a variety of large-signal disturbances.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8454505
Pages (from-to)4993-5006
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Dr. Johnson was a recipient of the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship in 2010. He is an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANS-ACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION.

Funding Information:
Manuscript received May 4, 2018; revised July 22, 2018; accepted August 20, 2018. Date of publication September 3, 2018; date of current version March 29, 2019. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office under Contract DE-EE0000-1583 and in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant ECCS-1509277. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor W. Huang. (Corresponding author: Sairaj V. Dhople.) M. Sinha and S. V. Dhople are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA (e-mail:,;

Publisher Copyright:
© 1986-2012 IEEE.


  • Decentralized control
  • multiphase converters
  • nonlinear control
  • switch interleaving


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