Lipid metabolism is intimately linked to circadian mechanisms and light signaling. Dete-riorated photic transduction because of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss occurring with glaucoma progression reduces perceived light amplitude, causing circadian disruption. To investigate associa-tions with RGCs, total cholesterol (TC), its low-density (LDL-C) and high-density (HDL-C) fractions, and triglycerides (TG) were measured, under a controlled meal regimen, during daytime hours in 114 patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). RGC damage was assessed by high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). Analysis of eight clock, clock-related, and melatonin receptor gene polymorphisms was performed on 19 patients. RGC loss was associated with changes in lipid metabolism in a time-dependent manner. Morning (08:00) values of HDL-C (r = 0.613, p < 0.0001) and TG (r = 0.568, p < 0.0001) correlated positively with RGC global loss, while LDL-C at 08:00 had a weak correlation (r = 0.235; p = 0.012) but showed a strong correlation in the evening (20:00) (r = 0.533, p < 0.0001). The morning–evening gradients (MEGs, changes at 20:00 versus 08:00) in TC and LDL-C changed sign from a negative to a positive association in patients exceeding the 15% two-eye mean GLV threshold. MEG (LDL-C higher in the evening than in the morning) was positive only in POAG patients with the CLOCK_3111 TT genotype.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: The study was supported by West-Siberian Science and Education Center, Government of Tyumen District, Decree of 20.11.2020, No. 928-rp., and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 19-015-00329). The funding organization had no role in the design or conduct of this research. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- circadian disruption
- retinal ganglion cells
- SNP rs1801260