Dapagliflozin in Heart Failure With Mildly Reduced or Preserved Ejection Fraction According to Polypharmacy Status

Alexander Peikert, Parag Goyal, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Brian L. Claggett, Ian J. Kulac, Zi Michael Miao, Orly Vardeny, Mikhail N. Kosiborod, Akshay S. Desai, Pardeep S. Jhund, Carolyn S.P. Lam, Silvio E. Inzucchi, Felipe A. Martinez, Rudolf A. de Boer, Adrian F. Hernandez, Sanjiv J. Shah, Magnus Petersson, Anna Maria Langkilde, John J.V. McMurray, Scott D. Solomon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) have a high burden of multimorbidity, often necessitating numerous medications. There may be clinical concern about introducing another medication, especially among individuals with polypharmacy. Objectives: This study examined the efficacy and safety of addition of dapagliflozin according to the number of concomitant medications in HF with mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction. Methods: In this post hoc analysis of the DELIVER (Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure) trial, 6,263 participants with symptomatic HF with left ventricular ejection fraction >40% were randomized to dapagliflozin or placebo. Baseline medication use (including vitamins and supplements) was collected. Efficacy and safety outcomes were assessed by medication use categories (“nonpolypharmacy”: <5 medications; “polypharmacy”: 5 to 9 medications; and “hyperpolypharmacy”: ≥10 medications) and continuously. The primary outcome was worsening HF or cardiovascular death. Results: Overall, 3,795 (60.6%) patients met polypharmacy and 1,886 (30.1%) met hyperpolypharmacy criteria. Higher numbers of medications were strongly associated with higher comorbidity burden and increased rates of the primary outcome. Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin similarly reduced the risk of the primary outcome irrespective of polypharmacy status (nonpolypharmacy HR: 0.88 [95% CI: 0.58-1.34]; polypharmacy HR: 0.88 [95% CI: 0.75-1.03]; hyperpolypharmacy HR: 0.73 [95% CI: 0.60-0.88]; Pinteraction = 0.30). Similarly, benefits with dapagliflozin were consistent across the spectrum of total medication use (Pinteraction = 0.06). Although adverse events increased with higher number of medications, they were not more frequent with dapagliflozin, regardless of polypharmacy status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1380-1393
Number of pages14
JournalJACC: Heart Failure
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2023

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  • SGLT2 inhibitors
  • heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction
  • heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
  • polypharmacy


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