Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital viral infection in the developed world and is a major cause of birth defects in newborns. Preconception immunity to HCMV lessens the risk of congenital infection and its attendant neurodevelopmental sequelae. This observation has driven interest in the development of vaccines, with a particular emphasis on women of childbearing age, toward the goal of lessening the burden imposed by congenital HCMV infection. Such vaccines may also have a role in the prevention of HCMV-associated disease in immunocompromised individuals, particularly solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Although there is currently no licensed HCMV vaccine available, significant progress has been made in recent years. This review summarizes some of the newer HCMV vaccine approaches "in the pipeline", including vaccine strategies currently in various stages of preclinical development, as well as those vaccines that are currently in clinical trials.