Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the nontransplant setting is very rare. We report our experience with 4 such cases, and review the literature (n=12). The median age at diagnosis was 10 years and 50% of patients were males. Among the 11 cases with available information at the time of diagnosis, CMV disease occurred during maintenance therapy in 10 patients. Fever was present in 9 cases. CMV disease manifested as retinitis in 6, hepatosplenic disease in 3, pneumonitis in 1, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in 1 patient. One patient had both CMV retinitis and CMV-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Four of the 7 patients with retinitis complained of visual disturbance at diagnosis. CMV viremia was present in 10 patients. Three patients had at least 1 relapse and developed permanent visual defects, and 1 patient developed recurrent retinal detachment. In conclusion, prolonged immunosuppression is the major etiology and retinitis is the most common manifestation of CMV disease. As a significant number of patients with retinitis are asymptomatic, early diagnosis and treatment is important to prevent permanent visual loss. ©
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