Cyclical Thinning of Black Phosphorus with High Spatial Resolution for Heterostructure Devices

Matthew C. Robbins, Seon Namgung, Sang Hyun Oh, Steven J. Koester

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


A high spatial resolution, cyclical thinning method for realizing black phosphorus (BP) heterostructures is reported. This process utilizes a cyclic technique involving BP surface oxidation and vacuum annealing to create BP flakes as thin as 1.6 nm. The process also utilizes a spatially patternable mask created by evaporating Al that oxidizes to form Al2O3, which stabilizes the unetched BP regions and enables the formation of lateral heterostructures with spatial resolution as small as 150 nm. This thinning/patterning technique has also been used to create the first-ever lateral heterostructure BP metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), in which half of a BP flake was thinned in order to increase its band gap. This heterostructure MOSFET showed an ON/OFF current ratio improvement of 1000× compared to homojunction MOSFETs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12654-12662
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number14
StatePublished - Apr 12 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was partially supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award FA9550-14-1-0277 the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grant ECCS-1102278, and the NSF through the University of Minnesota MRSEC under Award DMR-1420013. Device fabrication was carried out in the Minnesota Nano Center, which receives partial support from NSF through National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (NNCI).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 American Chemical Society.

Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • 2D material
  • black phosphorus
  • heterostructure
  • phosphorene

How much support was provided by MRSEC?

  • Partial

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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