Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation

Anna D. Tischler, Andrew Camilli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

390 Scopus citations


While studying virulence gene regulation in Vibrio choleras during infection of the host small intestine, we identified VieA as a two-component response regulator that contributes to activating expression of cholera toxin. Here we report that VieA represses transcription of Vibrio exopolysaccharide synthesis (vps) genes involved in biofilm formation by a mechanism independent of its phosphorelay and DNA-binding activities. VieA controls the intracellular concentration of the cyclic nucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) using an EAL domain that functions as a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. Two-dimensional thin layer chromatography of nucleotide extracts confirmed that VieA reduces the concentration of c-di-GMP, opposing the action of c-di-GMP synthetase proteins. Expression of unrelated V. cholerae c-di-GMP synthetase or phosphodiesterae proteins also modulated c-di-GMP concentration and vps gene expression. We propose that c-di-GMP synthetase and phosphodiesterase domain-containing proteins contribute to regulating biofilm formation by controlling c-di-GMP concentration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)857-869
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular Microbiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2004


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