Cyanide Antidotes in Development and New Methods to Monitor Cyanide Toxicity

Matthew Brenner, Sari Mahon-Brenner, Steven E. Patterson, Gary A. Rockwood, Gerry R. Boss

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Currently approved treatments for cyanide poisoning in the United States are hydroxocobalamin and the combination of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate. All three agents must be given in relatively large volumes by intravenous injection. This chapter presents data on three drugs in development that are sufficiently potent and soluble to be administered in small volumes. The three drugs are cobinamide, a cyanide scavenger, dimethyltrisulfide (DMTS), a sulfur donor and a possible substrate for the two cyanide detoxifying enzymes rhodanese and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST), and sulfanegen, a 3-MPST substrate. Laboratory methods to detect cyanide poisoning in acute clinical care settings have been limited by the need for complex and time consuming assays. The potential clinical role for measuring exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide remains to be determined, and further investigations are ongoing regarding simplified detection methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationToxicology of Cyanides and Cyanogens
Subtitle of host publicationExperimental, Applied and Clinical Aspects
PublisherWiley-Blackwell
Pages309-316
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781118628966
ISBN (Print)9781119978534
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 5 2016

Keywords

  • Cobinamide
  • Cyanide antidotes
  • Cyanide toxicity
  • Sulfanegen

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    Brenner, M., Mahon-Brenner, S., Patterson, S. E., Rockwood, G. A., & Boss, G. R. (2016). Cyanide Antidotes in Development and New Methods to Monitor Cyanide Toxicity. In Toxicology of Cyanides and Cyanogens: Experimental, Applied and Clinical Aspects (pp. 309-316). Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118628966.ch26