Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ Th1-mediated demyelinating disease of the CNS that serves as a model for multiple sclerosis. A critical event in the pathogenesis of EAE is the entry of both Ag-specific and Ag-nonspecific T lymphocytes into the CNS. In the present report, we investigated the role of the CXC chemokine CXCL10 (IFN-γ-inducible protein-10) in the pathogenesis of EAE. Production of CXCL10 in the CNS correlated with the development of clinical disease. Administration of anti-CXCL10 decreased clinical and histological disease incidence, severity, as well as infiltration of mononuclear cells into the CNS. Anti-CXCL10 specifically decreased the accumulation of encephalitogenic PLP139-151 Ag-specific CD4+ T cells in the CNS compared with control-treated animals. Anti-CXCL10 administration did not affect the activation of encephalitogenic T cells as measured by Ag-specific proliferation and the ability to adoptively transfer EAE. These results demonstrate an important role for the CXC chemokine CXCL10 in the recruitment and accumulation of inflammatory mononuclear cells during the pathogenesis of EAE.