Current Update on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Vaccine Development with a Special Emphasis on Gene Therapy Viral Vector Design and Construction for Vaccination

Atil Bisgin, Ahter D. Sanlioglu, Yunus Emre Eksi, Thomas S. Griffith, Salih Sanlioglu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerging infectious disease (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2). To combat the devastating spread of SARS-CoV-2, extraordinary efforts from numerous laboratories have focused on the development of effective and safe vaccines. Traditional live-attenuated or inactivated viral vaccines are not recommended for immunocompromised patients as the attenuated virus can still cause disease via phenotypic or genotypic reversion. Subunit vaccines require repeated dosing and adjuvant use to be effective, and DNA vaccines exhibit lower immune responses. mRNA vaccines can be highly unstable under physiological conditions. On the contrary, naturally antigenic viral vectors with well-characterized structure and safety profile serve as among the most effective gene carriers to provoke immune response via heterologous gene transfer. Viral vector-based vaccines induce both an effective cellular immune response and a humoral immune response owing to their natural adjuvant properties via transduction of immune cells. Consequently, viral vectored vaccines carrying the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein have recently been generated and successfully used to activate cytotoxic T cells and develop a neutralizing antibody response. Recent progress in SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, with an emphasis on gene therapy viral vector-based vaccine development, is discussed in this review.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)541-562
Number of pages22
JournalHuman gene therapy
Volume32
Issue number11-12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 16 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported by the Akdeniz University Scientific Research Administration Division and the Small and Medium Enterprises Development Organization of Turkey (KOSGEB-42MUD).

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright 2021, by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers 2021.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • vaccines
  • viral vectors

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