Current Technologies and Uses for Fruit and Vegetable Wastes in a Sustainable System: A Review

Yingdan Zhu, Yueting Luan, Yingnan Zhao, Jiali Liu, Zhangqun Duan, Roger Ruan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The fruit and vegetable industry produces millions of tons of residues, which can cause large economic losses. Fruit and vegetable wastes and by-products contain a large number of bioactive substances with functional ingredients that have antioxidant, antibacterial, and other properties. Current technologies can utilize fruit and vegetable waste and by-products as ingredients, food bioactive compounds, and biofuels. Traditional and commercial utilization in the food industry includes such technologies as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), and high hydrostatic pressure technique (HHP). Biorefinery methods for converting fruit and vegetable wastes into biofuels, such as anaerobic digestion (AD), fermentation, incineration, pyrolysis and gasification, and hydrothermal carbonization, are described. This study provides strategies for the processing of fruit and vegetable wastes using eco-friendly technologies and lays a foundation for the utilization of fruit and vegetable loss/waste and by-products in a sustainable system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1949
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by The Essential Research Funds for the Central Non-profit Institutes of China (ZX2222).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • antioxidants
  • bioactive compounds
  • biofuels
  • biorefinery
  • fruit and vegetable wastes

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


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