Current Status of Point-of-Care Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance

Horacio A. Duarte, Nuttada Panpradist, Ingrid A. Beck, Barry Lutz, James Lai, Ruth M. Kanthula, Rami Kantor, Anubhav Tripathi, Shanmugam Saravanan, Iain J. Macleod, Michael H. Chung, Guoqing Zhang, Chunfu Yang, Lisa M. Frenkel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Healthcare delivery has advanced due to the implementation of point-of-care testing, which is often performed within minutes to hours in minimally equipped laboratories or at home. Technologic advances are leading to point-of-care kits that incorporate nucleic acid-based assays, including polymerase chain reaction, isothermal amplification, ligation, and hybridization reactions. As a limited number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with clinically significant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance, assays to detect these mutations have been developed. Early versions of these assays have been used in research. This review summarizes the principles underlying each assay and discusses strategic needs for their incorporation into the management of HIV infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S824-S828
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
StatePublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Supplement sponsorship. This work is part of a supplement sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, NIH, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Funding Information:
Financial support. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant numbers R01 AI110375 to N. P., I. A. B., B. L., J. L., R. M. K., L. M. F.; R01 AI100037 to I. A. B., M. H. C., L. M. F.; R21AI106392 to R. K., S. S.; R44AI118441 to I. J. M.; R44AI128974 to I. J. M.; 272201600022C-0-0-1, P30AI042853 to I. J. M.; UM1 AI106716 to I. A. B., L. M. F.; K12 HD000850 to H. A. D.); Massachusetts General Hospital (to N. P.); P30AI042853 and Brown University Dean’s Award (to R. K. and A. T.); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (to G. Z. and C. Y.); and President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (to G. Z. and C. Y.).

Funding Information:
Potential conflicts of interest. J. L. reports grants from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), during the conduct of the study; other from Nexgenia, outside the submitted work. In addition, J. L. has a 2 patents issued (US9429570 and US9080933). I. J. M. reports grants from the National Institutes of Health, and personal fees and other from Aldatu Biosciences. In addition, L. J. M. has a patent (US20160244817 A1) licensed to Aldatu Biosciences. All other authors report no potential conflicts. All authors have submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.


  • Drug resistance
  • HIV
  • Point-of-care tests.


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