The lipid component of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is primarily composed of the glycolipid lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which serves to form a protective barrier against hydrophobic toxins and many antibiotics. LPS is comprised of three regions: the lipid A membrane anchor, the nonrepeating core oligosaccharide, and the repeating O-antigen polysaccharide. The lipid A portion is also referred to as endotoxin as its overstimulation of the toll-like receptor 4 during systemic infection precipitates potentially fatal septic shock. Because of the importance of LPS for the viability and virulence of human pathogens, understanding how LPS is synthesized and transported to the outer leaflet of the outer membrane is important for developing novel antibiotics to combat resistant Gram-negative strains. The following review describes the current state of our understanding of the proteins responsible for the synthesis and transport of LPS with an emphasis on the contribution of protein structures to our understanding of their functions. Because the lipid A portion of LPS is relatively well conserved, a detailed description of the biosynthetic enzymes in the Raetz pathway of lipid A synthesis is provided. Conversely, less well-conserved biosynthetic enzymes later in LPS synthesis are described primarily to demonstrate conserved principles of LPS synthesis. Finally, the conserved LPS transport systems are described in detail.