Many studies during the past 15 years have shown that the direction of motor output (movement or isometric force) is an important factor for neuronal activity in the motor cortex, both at the level of single cells and at the level of neuronal populations. Recent studies have investigated several new aspects of this problem including the effect of posture, the relations to time-varying movement parameters (for example, position, velocity and acceleration) and the cortical representation of memorized simple movements and complex-movement trajectories. Furthermore, the neural correlates of directional operations, such as mental rotation and memory-scanning of visuomotor directions, have also been investigated. In addition, neural networks have been used to model dynamic, time-varying, spatial motor trajectories.
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Acknowledgements This work was supported by United States Public Health Service grant NS17413.
Acknowledgements Experiments described here were carried out under grants from the ESF programme on the neural mechanisms of learning and memory and the Medical Research Council. I am grate/id to Elisabeth Bock, Radmila Mileusnic, Ciaran Regan, Carmen Sandi, Susan Sara and Melitta Schachner for discussions and collaborative expm’ments.