Statement of problem: Developments in ceramic core materials such as lithium disilicate, aluminum oxide, and zirconium oxide have allowed more widespread application of all-ceramic restorations over the past 10 years. With a plethora of ceramic materials and systems currently available for use, an overview of the scientific literature on the efficacy of this treatment therapy is indicated. Purpose: This article reviews the current literature covering all-ceramic materials and systems, with respect to survival, material properties, marginal and internal fit, cementation and bonding, and color and esthetics, and provides clinical recommendations for their use. Material and methods: A comprehensive review of the literature was completed seeking evidence for the treatment of teeth with all-ceramic restorations. A search of English language peer-reviewed literature was undertaken using MEDLINE and PubMed with a focus on evidence-based research articles published between 1996 and 2006. A hand search of relevant dental journals was also completed. Randomized controlled trials, nonrandomized controlled studies, longitudinal experimental clinical studies, longitudinal prospective studies, and longitudinal retrospective studies were reviewed. The last search was conducted on June 12, 2007. Data supporting the clinical application of all-ceramic materials and systems was sought. Results: The literature demonstrates that multiple all-ceramic materials and systems are currently available for clinical use, and there is not a single universal material or system for all clinical situations. The successful application is dependent upon the clinician to match the materials, manufacturing techniques, and cementation or bonding procedures, with the individual clinical situation. Conclusions: Within the scope of this systematic review, there is no evidence to support the universal application of a single ceramic material and system for all clinical situations. Additional longitudinal clinical studies are required to advance the development of ceramic materials and systems.