Purpose of Review: To provide an overview of the technologic advancements in the field of ablative therapy, focusing on the treatment of renal neoplasms. Materials and Methods: A MEDLINE search was performed using each specific ablative technique name as the search term. Articles written in the English language were selected for review. In cases of multiple reports by a single institution, the most recent report was utilized. Pertinent articles specific to the technologic advancement in ablative therapy were selected for review. Recent Findings: Intermediate-term oncologic outcomes of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and cryoablation (CA) for the treatment of small renal masses are encouraging. For thermal therapies, molecular adjuvants to enhance cellular kill and local control have been developed. Improvements in microwave technology have allowed for reductions in antenna size and increases in ablation size. Laparoscopic high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) probes have been developed to overcome the limitations of transcutaneous energy delivery, but HIFU remains experimental for the treatment of renal lesions. Irreversible electroporation (IRE), a novel nonthermal ablative technique, is currently undergoing clinical investigation in human subjects. Histotripsy causes mechanical destruction of targeted tissue and shows promise in treating renal and prostate pathology. Summary: Ablative techniques are commonly utilized in the primary treatment of urologic malignancies. The purpose of this review is to discuss technologic advances in ablative therapies with emphasis on the treatment of renal masses. RFA and CA show acceptable intermediate-term efficacy and technical refinement continues. Emerging technologies, including microwave thermotherapy, IRE, HIFU and histotripsy, are described with emphasis on the mechanism of cellular kill, energy delivery, and stage in clinical development.
- kidney cancer
- kidney neoplasm