CSF1R-related disorder: State of the art, challenges, and proposition of a new terminology

Jarosław Dulski, Karthik Muthusamy, Troy C. Lund, Zbigniew K. Wszolek

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Recent developments in adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) and other disorders due to CSF1R variants led to the emergence of symptomatic and prophylactic treatment options. The growing body of knowledge on genetics, pathomechanisms, clinical, and radiological features in patients harboring CSF1R variants challenges the current concepts and terminology to define the disorders, in addition to bringing up new questions on genotype-phenotype relationships. Therefore, this paper discusses the present complexities and challenges in the research on ALSP due to CSF1R variants. We illustrate our new concepts with two cases that are compound heterozygotes for CSF1R variants. Although their clinical phenotype resembles ALSP, the diagnosis of brain abnormalities, neurodegeneration, and dysosteosclerosis (BANDDOS) seems more appropriate based on their genotype. As the diagnostic classification dilemma cannot be resolved with currently used concepts and terminology on these disorders, we propose a new nomenclature of “CSF1R-related disorder” with subcategories of “early-onset (<18 years old) and late-onset (≥18 years old) forms”. We highlight the heterogeneity of CSF1R variant carriers in age at onset, spectrum and severity of clinical presentation, and progression rate, even within the same family. We argue that multiple factors, including genetic architecture and environment, converge to result in an individual's disease phenotype.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105894
JournalParkinsonism and Related Disorders
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd


  • ALSP
  • HDLS
  • Leukodystrophy
  • Leukoencephalopathy
  • POLD

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


Dive into the research topics of 'CSF1R-related disorder: State of the art, challenges, and proposition of a new terminology'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this