An ancient enzyme family responsible for the catabolism of the prebiotic chemical cyanuric acid (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triol) was recently discovered and is undergoing proliferation in the modern world due to industrial synthesis and dissemination of 1,3,5-triazine compounds. Cyanuric acid has a highly stabilized ring system such that bacteria require a unique enzyme with a novel fold and subtle active site construction to open the ring. Each cyanuric acid hydrolase monomer consists of three isostructural domains that coordinate and activate the three-fold symmetric substrate cyanuric acid for ring opening. We have now solved a series of X-ray structures of an engineered, thermostable cyanuric acid ring-opening enzyme at 1.51 ~ 2.25 Å resolution, including various complexes with the substrate, a tight-binding inhibitor, or an analog of the reaction intermediate. These structures reveal asymmetric interactions between the enzyme and bound ligands, a metal ion binding coupled to conformational changes and substrate binding important for enzyme stability, and distinct roles of the isostructural domains of the enzyme. The multiple conformations of the enzyme observed across a series of structures and corroborating biochemical data suggest importance of the structural dynamics in facilitating the substrate entry and the ring-opening reaction, catalyzed by a conserved Ser-Lys dyad.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the BioTechnology Institute of the University of Minnesota, a grant from the National Center for Food Safety and Defense to LPW, and a grant from National Institutes of Health (R35 GM118047) to HA. This work is based upon research conducted at the Northeastern Collaborative Access Team beamlines, which are funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences from the National Institutes of Health (P30 GM124165). The Pilatus 6M detector on 24-ID-C beam line is funded by a NIH-ORIP HEI grant (S10 RR029205). This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. We acknowledge support from NSF grant MCB- 1330760 to LPW, and a MnDRIVE Trandisciplinary grant from the Office of the Vice President for Research at UMN. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
© 2019 Shi et al.
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