Cryptococcal Disease in the Era of "test and Treat": Is There Cause for Concern?

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6 Scopus citations


Treatment of cryptococcosis requires deferred initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Early ART initiation may be detrimental in the context of cryptococcal infection by increasing the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We present 3 cases where early ART initiation in the presence of unrecognized cryptococcal disease had fatal outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberofx274
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Financial support. This work was supported by the Fogarty International Center (K01TW010268 and R25TW009345), the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (R01NS086312), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (T32AI055433) of the National Institute of Health, and DELTAS Africa Initiative grant No. DEL-15-011 to THRiVE-2 (D.M.).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Author(s).


  • HIV
  • cryptococcal immune reconstitution syndrome
  • test and treat


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