Prostate cancer is a common worldwide health problem in males with a poor prognosis due in part to tumor invasion and migration. The crude extract of Euphorbia formosana (CEEF) has been used for the treatment of numerous diseases, however, its effects on the migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells have yet to be examined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CEEF on the migration and invasion of DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. The wound healing assay and the Matrigel-uncoated migration assay were used to examine the migration of cancer cells. Western blotting was used to examine the levels of proteins associated with migration and invasion, and gelatin zymography was used to examine the secretion levels of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (MMP-2/9) from DU145 cells following exposure to CEEF. The results indicated that CEEF suppressed the migration and invasion of DU145 prostate cancer cells and that these effects are exerted in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. CEEF inhibited the ERK1/2, p38, JNK, SOS1, PKC, PI3K and MMP-2/9 protein expression in DU145 cells. The results demonstrated that CEEF suppressed the migration and invasion of DU145 cells through inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway resulting in the inhibition of MMP-2/9 in DU145 human prostate cancer cells.
- Crude extract of Euphorbia formosana
- DU145 human prostate cancer cells
- MAPK signaling pathway