Cross-diagnostic analysis of cognitive control in mental illness

Insights from the CNTRACS consortium

Jason Smucny, Deanna M. Barch, James M. Gold, Milton E. Strauss, Angus MacDonald, Megan A. Boudewyn, J. Daniel Ragland, Steven M. Silverstein, Cameron S. Carter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: In recent years, psychiatry research has increasingly focused on understanding mental illnesses from a cross-diagnostic, dimensional perspective in order to better align their neurocognitive features with underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this multi-site study, we examined two measures of cognitive control (d-prime context and lapsing rate) during the Dot Probe Expectancy (DPX) version of the AX-Continuous Performance Task in patients with either schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZ-A), or Type I bipolar disorder (BD) as well as healthy control (HC) subjects. We hypothesized significantly lower d-prime context and higher lapsing rate in SZ and SZ-A patients and intermediate levels in BD patients relative to HC. Methods: 72 HC, 84 SZ, 77 SZ-A, and 58 BD patients (ages 18–56) were included in the final study sample. Results: Significant main effects of diagnosis were observed on d-prime context (F(3,279) = 9.59, p < 0.001) and lapsing (F(3,279) = 8.08, p < 0.001). A priori linear contrasts suggesting intermediate dysfunction in BD patients were significant (p < 0.001), although post-hoc tests showed the BD group was only significantly different from HC on d-prime context. Group results for d-prime context remained significant after covarying for lapsing rate. Primary behavioral measures were associated with mania and disorganization symptoms as well as everyday functioning. Conclusions: These findings suggest a continuum of dysfunction in cognitive control (particularly d-prime context) across diagnostic categories in psychiatric illness. These results further suggest that lapsing and d-prime context, while related, make unique contributions towards explaining deficits in cognitive control in these disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-383
Number of pages7
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Volume208
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019

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Bipolar Disorder
Schizophrenia
Psychiatry
Task Performance and Analysis
Psychotic Disorders
Healthy Volunteers
Research

Keywords

  • Ax-cpt
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Cognitive control
  • D-prime context
  • Schizoaffective disorder
  • Schizophrenia

Cite this

Cross-diagnostic analysis of cognitive control in mental illness : Insights from the CNTRACS consortium. / Smucny, Jason; Barch, Deanna M.; Gold, James M.; Strauss, Milton E.; MacDonald, Angus; Boudewyn, Megan A.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Silverstein, Steven M.; Carter, Cameron S.

In: Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 208, 01.06.2019, p. 377-383.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Smucny, J, Barch, DM, Gold, JM, Strauss, ME, MacDonald, A, Boudewyn, MA, Ragland, JD, Silverstein, SM & Carter, CS 2019, 'Cross-diagnostic analysis of cognitive control in mental illness: Insights from the CNTRACS consortium', Schizophrenia Research, vol. 208, pp. 377-383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.01.018
Smucny, Jason ; Barch, Deanna M. ; Gold, James M. ; Strauss, Milton E. ; MacDonald, Angus ; Boudewyn, Megan A. ; Ragland, J. Daniel ; Silverstein, Steven M. ; Carter, Cameron S. / Cross-diagnostic analysis of cognitive control in mental illness : Insights from the CNTRACS consortium. In: Schizophrenia Research. 2019 ; Vol. 208. pp. 377-383.
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abstract = "Background: In recent years, psychiatry research has increasingly focused on understanding mental illnesses from a cross-diagnostic, dimensional perspective in order to better align their neurocognitive features with underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this multi-site study, we examined two measures of cognitive control (d-prime context and lapsing rate) during the Dot Probe Expectancy (DPX) version of the AX-Continuous Performance Task in patients with either schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZ-A), or Type I bipolar disorder (BD) as well as healthy control (HC) subjects. We hypothesized significantly lower d-prime context and higher lapsing rate in SZ and SZ-A patients and intermediate levels in BD patients relative to HC. Methods: 72 HC, 84 SZ, 77 SZ-A, and 58 BD patients (ages 18–56) were included in the final study sample. Results: Significant main effects of diagnosis were observed on d-prime context (F(3,279) = 9.59, p < 0.001) and lapsing (F(3,279) = 8.08, p < 0.001). A priori linear contrasts suggesting intermediate dysfunction in BD patients were significant (p < 0.001), although post-hoc tests showed the BD group was only significantly different from HC on d-prime context. Group results for d-prime context remained significant after covarying for lapsing rate. Primary behavioral measures were associated with mania and disorganization symptoms as well as everyday functioning. Conclusions: These findings suggest a continuum of dysfunction in cognitive control (particularly d-prime context) across diagnostic categories in psychiatric illness. These results further suggest that lapsing and d-prime context, while related, make unique contributions towards explaining deficits in cognitive control in these disorders.",
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T2 - Insights from the CNTRACS consortium

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AU - Barch, Deanna M.

AU - Gold, James M.

AU - Strauss, Milton E.

AU - MacDonald, Angus

AU - Boudewyn, Megan A.

AU - Ragland, J. Daniel

AU - Silverstein, Steven M.

AU - Carter, Cameron S.

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AB - Background: In recent years, psychiatry research has increasingly focused on understanding mental illnesses from a cross-diagnostic, dimensional perspective in order to better align their neurocognitive features with underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this multi-site study, we examined two measures of cognitive control (d-prime context and lapsing rate) during the Dot Probe Expectancy (DPX) version of the AX-Continuous Performance Task in patients with either schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZ-A), or Type I bipolar disorder (BD) as well as healthy control (HC) subjects. We hypothesized significantly lower d-prime context and higher lapsing rate in SZ and SZ-A patients and intermediate levels in BD patients relative to HC. Methods: 72 HC, 84 SZ, 77 SZ-A, and 58 BD patients (ages 18–56) were included in the final study sample. Results: Significant main effects of diagnosis were observed on d-prime context (F(3,279) = 9.59, p < 0.001) and lapsing (F(3,279) = 8.08, p < 0.001). A priori linear contrasts suggesting intermediate dysfunction in BD patients were significant (p < 0.001), although post-hoc tests showed the BD group was only significantly different from HC on d-prime context. Group results for d-prime context remained significant after covarying for lapsing rate. Primary behavioral measures were associated with mania and disorganization symptoms as well as everyday functioning. Conclusions: These findings suggest a continuum of dysfunction in cognitive control (particularly d-prime context) across diagnostic categories in psychiatric illness. These results further suggest that lapsing and d-prime context, while related, make unique contributions towards explaining deficits in cognitive control in these disorders.

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