Genome editing is a rapidly developing field of genetic engineering that allows precise modification of the genome. Genome editing is enabled by localizing sequence-specific nuclease (SSN) and sequence-specific effector (SSE) proteins to specific regions of the genome, and inducing DNA damage or modifying nucleotides or histone marks, respectively. SSN technology has been the driving force behind the advancement of genome editing, with clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated system (CRISPR/ Cas) standing as the dominant technology. Nevertheless, challenges exist for applying genome editing to crop species. This chapter reviews the mechanisms underlying genome editing, the reagents and plant transformation systems that enable genome editing, and strategies for targeted mutagenesis and gene targeting in crop species, as well as perspective applications for genome editing for large-scale modifications and commercial applications in agriculture. This information aims to extend the benefits of genome editing to more crop species and accelerate plant breeding efforts.
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- Gene editing
- Gene targeting
- Genetic engineering
- Plant transformation
- Sequence-specific nuclease
- Targeted mutagenesis