Criterion-related profile analysis (CPA) can be used to assess whether subscores of a test or test battery account for more criterion variance than does a single total score. Application of CPA to subscore evaluation is described, compared to alternative procedures, and illustrated using SAT data. Considerations other than validity and reliability are discussed, including broad societal goals (e.g., affirmative action), fairness, and ties in expected criterion predictions. In simulation data, CPA results were sensitive to subscore correlations, sample size, and the proportion of criterion-related variance accounted for by the subscores. CPA can be a useful component in a thorough subscore evaluation encompassing subscore reliability, validity, distinctiveness, fairness, and broader societal goals.