Criterion A of the AMPD in HiTOP

Thomas A. Widiger, Bo Bach, Michael Chmielewski, Lee Anna Clark, Colin DeYoung, Christopher J. Hopwood, Roman Kotov, Robert F. Krueger, Joshua D. Miller, Leslie C. Morey, Stephanie N. Mullins-Sweatt, Christopher J. Patrick, Aaron L. Pincus, Douglas B. Samuel, Martin Sellbom, Susan C. South, Jennifer L. Tackett, David Watson, Mark H. Waugh, Aidan G.C. WrightJohannes Zimmermann, R. Michael Bagby, David C. Cicero, Christopher C. Conway, Barbara De Clercq, Anna R. Docherty, Nicholas R. Eaton, Kelsie T. Forbush, J. D. Haltigan, Masha Y. Ivanova, Robert D. Latzman, Donald R. Lynam, Kristian E. Markon, Ulrich Reininghaus, Katherine M. Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

101 Scopus citations


The categorical model of personality disorder classification in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM–5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is highly and fundamentally problematic. Proposed for DSM–5 and provided within Section III (for Emerging Measures and Models) was the Alternative Model of Personality Disorder (AMPD) classification, consisting of Criterion A (self-interpersonal deficits) and Criterion B (maladaptive personality traits). A proposed alternative to the DSM–5 more generally is an empirically based dimensional organization of psychopathology identified as the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP; Kotov et al., 2017). HiTOP currently includes, at the highest level, a general factor of psychopathology. Further down are the five domains of detachment, antagonistic externalizing, disinhibited externalizing, thought disorder, and internalizing (along with a provisional sixth somatoform dimension) that align with Criterion B. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential inclusion and placement of the self-interpersonal deficits of the DSM–5 Section III Criterion A within HiTOP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)345-355
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Personality Assessment
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 4 2019

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