Crevicular fluid enzymes from endosseous dental implants and natural teeth

Suheil M. Boutros, Bryan S Michalowicz, Quenton T. Smith, Dorothee M. Aeppli

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52 Scopus citations


Several neutrophil-derived enzymes that are present in the gingival crevicular fluid have been evaluated for use as risk markers for periodontal disease progression. However, very little information is available about the presence of these enzymes in peri-implant tissues. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare levels of enzymes in gingival crevicular fluid between natural teeth and endosseous dental implants and between well-integrated and failing implants. Scores of plaque and gingivitis were recorded for 68 integrated implants, five failing implants, and 34 natural teeth in 12 completely edentulous and 18 partially edentulous subjects. Samples of gingival crevicular fluid were obtained from these sites using filter paper strips and were assayed for levels of neutral protease, neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, and β-glucuronidase. Neutral protease levels were higher (P = .066) at moderately to severely inflamed implant sites (Gingival Index of 2, 3) compared to mildly or noninflamed sites (Gingival Index of = 0, 1). Despite the small number (n = 5) of failing implants evaluated in this study, levels of neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, and β-glucuronidase were significantly higher (P ≤ .001) around failing implants compared to successful implants. Neutral protease levels were also elevated around failing implants, but the difference was not statistically significant. Results of this study indicate that neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, and β-glucuronidase levels in GCF appear to be good candidates for study as risk markers of implant failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)322-330
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1996


  • Endosseous dental implants
  • Gingival crevicular fluid
  • Myeloperoxidase
  • Neutral protease
  • Neutrophil elastase
  • Peri-implantitis
  • β-glucuronidase


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