COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in a Population-Based Study of Minnesota Residents

Sallee Brandt, Ryan T. Demmer, Sara Walsh, John F. Mulcahy, Evelyn Zepeda, Stephanie Yendell, Craig Hedberg, Angela K. Ulrich, Timothy Beebe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


COVID-19 continues to be a public health concern in the United States. Although safe and effective vaccines have been developed, a significant proportion of the US population has not received a COVID-19 vaccine. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the demographics and behaviors of Minnesota adults who have not received the primary series of the COVID-19 vaccine, or the booster shot using data from the Minnesota COVID-19 Antibody Study (MCAS) collected through a population-based sample between September and December 2021. Data were collected using a web-based survey sent to individuals that responded to a similar survey in 2020 and their adult household members. The sample was 51% female and 86% White/Non-Hispanic. A total of 9% of vaccine-eligible participants had not received the primary series and 23% of those eligible to receive a booster had not received it. Older age, higher education, better self-reported health, $75,000 to $100,000 annual household income, mask-wearing, and social distancing were associated with lower odds of hesitancy. Gender, race, and previous COVID-19 infection were not associated with hesitancy. The most frequently reported reason for not receiving a COVID-19 vaccination was safety concerns. Mask-wearing and being age 65 or older were the only strong predictors of lower odds of vaccine hesitancy for both the primary series and booster analyses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number766
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by the Minnesota Department of Health, grant number CON000000093412.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • booster vaccine
  • infections
  • infectious disease
  • public health
  • public health preparedness
  • surveillance
  • vaccine hesitancy

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


Dive into the research topics of 'COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in a Population-Based Study of Minnesota Residents'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this