Addressing the mental health needs of returning service members who have served in Iraq and Afghanistan, and their family members, requires careful consideration of the inter-relationships between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and family functioning. This chapter summarizes the theoretical and empirical literature regarding PTSD and couple relationships. It then presents findings from two studies that are part of the Readiness and Resilience in National Guard Soldiers (RINGS) project. The first study examined the importance of pre- and during deployment family concerns on post-deployment PTSD symptoms in a group of 432 National Guard soldiers. The second examined the relationship between PTSD symptoms and soldier- and partner-reported couple functioning in a sample of 49 Operation Iraqi Freedom National Guard soldiers and their partners.