Counting Spins with a New Spin Echo Double Resonance

Tom S. Cull, J. M. Joers, Terry Gullion, R. E. Norberg, Mark S. Conradi

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12 Scopus citations


In traditional spin echo double resonance (SEDOR), the echo amplitude M is decreased when the observed spins S are flipped by π together with the π refocusing pulse on the observed spins I; the dependence on τ is then determined. In the new version of SEDOR, the echo amplitude is measured as a function of the S spin flip angle θ at a constant pulse spacing τ. The analysis is simple and powerful for long τ, where the strong collision limit applies. There, the variation of M with θ can be fit, yielding the number n of spins S to which each spin I is coupled. Data from amorphous silicon with 1H and 2D show the described effect. A MAS version of the new method is used on multiply labeled alanine and urea, with results in good agreement with the predictions for n = 2, as expected. By Fourier transforming M with respect to the flip angle θ, a stick spectrum results; the largest numbered non-vanishing stick yields the number n of spins S coupled to each spin I. Simulations are presented for an n = 2 system. The present technique is compared to the multiple-quantum spin-counting method.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)352-357
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1998

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Ken Sakaie for helpful conversations. The mathematical assistance of W. H. Dickhoff is appreciated. Financial assistance through NSF grant DMR-9705080 (MSC), NSF grant CHE-9796188 (TG and JMJ), and grant DMR-9305344 (REN and TSC) is gratefully acknowledged. The work was partially supported (TG and JMJ) through a grant of the Petroleum Research Fund, administered by the American Chemical Society. TSC gratefully acknowledges partial support as a Sirovich Fellow.


  • Double resonance
  • Solid-state NMR
  • Spin echo
  • Unlike spins


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