CO2 hydrogenation to methanol over Pd/In2O3: effects of Pd and oxygen vacancy

Ning Rui, Zongyuan Wang, Kaihang Sun, Jingyun Ye, Qingfeng Ge, Chang jun Liu

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CO2 hydrogenation to methanol has attracted increasing attention. Previous theoretical study suggested that Pd/In2O3 has a high activity for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol with the Pd-In2O3 interfacial sites being the active ones. However, the strong interaction between Pd and In2O3 during the catalyst preparation leads to the formation of Pd-In bimetallic species and, consequently, reduces methanol yield. In this work, the Pd/In2O3 catalyst was prepared by firstly mixing In2O3 powder with Pd/peptide composite, which was followed by thermal treatment to remove the peptide. The resulting Pd/In2O3 catalyst is In2O3 supported highly-dispersed Pd-nanoparticles exposing predominately the (111) facets with particle sizes of 3.6 nm. Such Pd nanoparticles have a better ability to dissociatively adsorb hydrogen, thereby supplying hydrogen for the hydrogenation steps and facilitating oxygen vacancy creation. The interfacial sites are also active for enhanced CO2 adsorption and hydrogenation. All these factors contribute to a superior performance of the Pd/In2O3 catalyst for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol with a CO2 conversion >20% and methanol selectivity >70%, corresponding to a STY up to 0.89 gMeOH h−1 gcat−1 at 300 °C and 5 MPa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)488-497
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Catalysis B: Environmental
StatePublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFB0600900) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21536008 and 21621004).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier B.V.


  • Carbon dioxide
  • Hydrogenation
  • Indium oxide
  • Methanol
  • Oxygen vacancy
  • Palladium


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