Cost and pollutant removal of storm-water treatment practices

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95 Scopus citations


Six storm-water best management practices (BMPs) for treating urban rainwater runoff were evaluated for cost and effectiveness in removing suspended sediments and total phosphorus. Construction and annual operating and maintenance (O and M) cost data were collected and analyzed for dry extended detention basins, wet basins, sand filters, constructed wetlands, bioretention filters, and infiltration trenches using literature that reported on existing storm-water BMP sites across the United States. After statistical analysis on historical values of inflation and bond yields, the annual O and M costs were converted to a present worth based on a 20-year life and added to the construction cost. The total present cost of each storm-water BMP with the 67% confidence interval was reported as a function of the water quality design volume, again with a 67% confidence interval. Finally, the mass of total suspended solids and total phosphorus removed over the 20-year life was estimated as a function of the water quality volume. For the six storm-water BMPs investigated, results show that, ignoring land costs, constructed wetlands have been the least expensive to construct and maintain if appropriate land is available. However, since wetlands typically require more land area to be effective, land acquisition costs may result in wetlands being significantly more expensive than other storm-water BMPs that require less area. The results can be used by planners and designers to estimate both the total cost of installing a storm-water BMP and the corresponding total suspended solids and total phosphorus removal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)218-229
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Water Resources Planning and Management
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2007


  • Construction costs
  • Economic factors
  • Maintenance costs
  • Operation costs
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Stormwater management
  • Water pollution


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