Statement of problem: There is confusion in the literature about how physical properties of bone vary between maxillary and mandibular regions and which physical properties affect initial implant stability. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine correlations between physical properties of bone and initial implant stability, and to determine how physical properties and initial stability vary among regions of jawbone. Material and Methods: Four pairs of edentulous maxillae and mandibles were retrieved from fresh human cadavers. Six implants per pair were placed in different anatomical regions (maxillary anterior, right and left maxillary posterior, mandibular anterior, right and left mandibular posterior). Immediately after surgery, initial implant stability was measured with a resonance frequency device and a tapping device. Implant surgeries and initial stability measurements were performed within 72 hours of death. Elastic modulus (EM) and hardness were measured using nano-indentation. Composite apparent density (cAD) was measured using Archimedes' principle. Bone-implant contact percentage and cortical bone thickness were recorded histomorphometrically. Mixed linear models and univariate-correlation analyses were used (α=.05). Results: Generally, mandibular bone had higher initial implant stability and physical properties than maxillary bone. Initial implant stability was higher in the anterior region than in the posterior. EM was higher in the posterior region than in the anterior; the reverse was true for cAD. Conclusions: Of the properties evaluated, cAD had the highest correlation with initial implant stability (r=0.82). Both physical properties of bone and initial implant stability differed between regions of jawbone. (J Prosthet Dent 2009;101:306-318).
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was partially supported by a grant from NIH/NIDCR (grant number R21-DE015410).