Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can estimate volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and distinguish trabecular from cortical bone. Few comprehensive studies have examined correlates of vBMD in older men. This study evaluated the impact of demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and medical factors on vBMD in 1172 men aged 69 to 97 years and enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to measure vBMD of the radius and tibia. The multivariable linear regression models explained up to 10% of the variance in trabecular vBMD and up to 9% of the variance in cortical vBMD. Age was not correlated with radial trabecular vBMD. Correlates associated with both cortical and trabecular vBMD were age (-), caffeine intake (-), total calcium intake (+), nontrauma fracture (-), and hypertension (+). Higher body weight was related to greater trabecular vBMD and lower cortical vBMD. Height (-), education (+), diabetes with thiazolidinedione (TZD) use (+), rheumatoid arthritis (+), using arms to stand from a chair (-), and antiandrogen use (-) were associated only with trabecular vBMD. Factors associated only with cortical vBMD included clinic site (-), androgen use (+), grip strength (+), past smoker (-), and time to complete five chair stands (-). Certain correlates of trabecular and cortical vBMD differed among older men. An ascertainment of potential risk factors associated with trabecular and cortical vBMD may lead to better understanding and preventive efforts for osteoporosis in men.