Background In Peru, there is an ongoing high-incidence HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). Sexual concurrency, or having sex with a partner in between two acts of sex with another partner, may be a key factor in onward HIV transmission. In this study, we quantify concurrency, evaluate factors associated with concurrency, and assess condom use with concurrent partners among MSM and TW in Peru. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the 2011 Peruvian Biobehavioral Survey. Pearson’s Chi-squared test was used to identify individual-level characteristics associated with concurrency. We estimated the association between participant characteristics, concurrent partnerships, partnership type (stable vs. non-stable), and CLAI within the context of concurrent partnerships using multivariate and repeated-measure Poisson regression. Results 3-month cumulative prevalence of concurrency was higher among TW compared to MSM (30.7% vs 25.2%, p = 0.014). Among those with concurrent stable and non-stable partners, 45% used condoms with both partners (95% CI: 40%-50%) and 30% preferentially had CLAI with the stable partner only (95%CI: 26%-35%). Factors associated with CLAI within the context of concurrent partnerships varied between MSM and TW. Conclusions Although concurrency is common among TW and MSM in Peru, patterns of concurrency and differential condom use may vary between TW and MSM. Future research may explore differential condom use with stable and non-stable partners to better understand behavioral factors that may alter vulnerability to HIV in TW compared to MSM.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, NIH T32 CA 80416-14 to AKU. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
© 2019 Ulrich et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.