Background: Habitual substance use poses public health threat. This is a growing concern in countries where one or more substances are commonly used. Many individuals in Middle Eastern and East African countries use khat (Catha edulis), a stimulant often accompanied by smoking. However, few systematic attempts have been made to characterize patterns of concurrent khat and tobacco use. Objectives: To examine correlates such as gender and patterns of khat and tobacco use in concurrent users and khat-only users. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design with a face-to-face interview method including 151 (74 women) concurrent users of khat and tobacco and 141 (76 women) khat-only users in Yemen. Data collection was completed in 2012. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regressions were conducted to examine gender and khat use group differences in use patterns. Results: Reported frequency and intensity of khat use were greater in men than in women. Men and women khat users used different tobacco products and beverages while using khat. Khat use was more frequent in concurrent users relative to khat-only users. Earlier age of onset of khat use was associated with greater number of cigarettes smoked during a typical khat session. Approximately 70% of concurrent users reported initiating khat use prior to tobacco use. Conclusions/Importance: The results provide support for gender differences in khat and tobacco use, differences in khat use pattern between concurrent users of khat and tobacco and khat-only users, and positive associations between khat and tobacco use.
- Catha edulis