The oncoprotein c-Jun is a component of the activator protein-1 transcription factor complex, which is involved in cellular proliferation, transformation, and death. The stabilization of c-Jun is critically important for its function. The phosphorylation of c-Jun by c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases reduces c-Jun ubiquitination resulting in increased stabilization of c-Jun. In this report, we showed that COOH-terminal Src kinase (CSK) binds with and phosphorylates c-Jun at Y26 and Y170. Phosphorylation of c-Jun by CSK, in opposition to c-Jun NH 2-terminal kinase 1 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases, promoted c-Jun degradation and reduced stability. By promoting c-Jun degradation, CSK helps to maintain a low steady-state level of c-Jun, thereby inhibiting activator protein-1 activity and cell transformation caused by c-Jun. These results indicated that this function of CSK controls cell proliferation under normal growth conditions and may have implications for CSK loss of function in carcinogenesis.