In order to minimize coke formation during microwave-assisted catalytic fast pyrolysis (MACFP) of poultry litter for bio-oil production, hierarchical ZSM-5/MCM-41 catalyst samples are synthesized and employed in this work, and the effect of NaOH concentration used during catalyst preparation on MACFP of poultry litter is investigated. The catalyst characterization results demonstrate that MCM-41 mesoporous structure is formed in hierarchical ZSM-5/MCM-41 catalyst as the outer shell layer coupled with ZSM-5 as the inside core. For product distribution, when the NaOH concentration increases from 1.5 to 3.0 mol/L, the coke yield decreases, the oil fraction yield first decreases and then increases, and the yields of water and gas first increase and then decrease. For chemical compositions in oil fraction, the relative contents of aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing aromatic compounds first increase and then decrease, whereas the relative content of oxygen-containing aliphatic compounds first decrease and then increase.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors are grateful for the financial support from the Natural Science Fund Program of China (No. 51706043 & 51776042), the Jiangsu Natural Science Foundation (No. BK20170679), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 3203007207).
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- Catalytic fast pyrolysis
- Composite zeolite
- Hierarchical porosity
- Microwave absorbent
- Microwave heating
- Poultry litter