Controlling Dissolution and Transformation of Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks by using Electron-Beam-Induced Amorphization

Sabrina Conrad, Prashant Kumar, Feng Xue, Limin Ren, Sheryl Henning, Chunhong Xiao, Andre Mkhoyan, Michael Tsapatsis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Amorphous zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) offer promising applications as novel functional materials. Herein, amorphization of ZIF-L through scanning-electron-beam exposure is demonstrated, based on amorphization of individual ZIF-L crystals. The amorphized ZIF product has drastically increased stability against dissolution in water. An electron dose that allows for complete preservation of amorphous particles after immersion in water is established, resulting in new shapes of amorphous ZIF-L with spatial control at the sub-micrometer length scale. Changed water stability as a consequence of scanning-electron-beam exposure is demonstrated for three additional metal–organic frameworks (ZIF-8, Zn(BeIm)OAc, MIL-101), highlighting the potential use of an electron beam for top-down MOF patterning. Lastly, recrystallization of ZIF-L in the presence of linker is studied and shows distinct differences for crystalline and amorphized material.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13592-13597
Number of pages6
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Issue number41
StatePublished - Oct 8 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Center for Gas Separations Relevant to Clean Energy Technologies, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award DESC0001015. Parts of this work were carried out in the Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, which receives partial support from the National Science Foundation through the MRSEC program. Portions of this work were conducted in the Minnesota Nano Center, which is supported by the National Science Foundation through the National Nano Coordinated Infrastructure Network (NNCI) under Award Number ECCS-1542202.


  • ZIF-L
  • amorphous materials
  • metal–organic frameworks (MOFs)
  • patterning
  • scanning probe techniques

How much support was provided by MRSEC?

  • Shared

Reporting period for MRSEC

  • Period 5

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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