Controlled p-type substitutional doping in large-area monolayer WSe 2 crystals grown by chemical vapor deposition

Sushil Kumar Pandey, Hussain Alsalman, Javad G. Azadani, Nezhueyotl Izquierdo, Tony Low, Stephen A Campbell

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Abstract

Tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) is a particularly interesting 2D material due to its p-type conductivity. Here we report a systematic single-step process to optimize crystal size by variation of multiple growth parameters resulting in hexagonal single crystals up to 165 μm wide. We then show that these large single crystals can be controllably in situ doped with the acceptor Niobium (Nb). First principles calculations suggest that substitutional Nb doping of W would yield p-doping with no gap trap states. When used as the active layer of a field effect transistor (FET), doped crystals exhibit conventional p-type behavior, rather than the ambipolar behaviour seen in undoped WSe 2 FETs. Nb-doped WSe 2 FETs yield a maximum field effect mobility of 116 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , slightly higher than its undoped counterpart, with an on/off ratio of 10 6 . Doping reduces the contact resistance of WSe 2 , reaching a minimum value of 0.55 kΩ μm in WSe 2 FETs. The areal density of holes in Nb-doped WSe 2 is approximately double that of undoped WSe 2 , indicating that Nb doping is working as an effective acceptor. Doping concentration can be controlled over several orders of magnitudes, allowing it to be used to control: FET threshold voltage, FET off-state leakage, and contact resistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21374-21385
Number of pages12
JournalNanoscale
Volume10
Issue number45
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 7 2018

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Niobium
Field effect transistors
Chemical vapor deposition
Monolayers
Doping (additives)
Crystals
Contact resistance
Single crystals
Tungsten
Threshold voltage

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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Controlled p-type substitutional doping in large-area monolayer WSe 2 crystals grown by chemical vapor deposition . / Pandey, Sushil Kumar; Alsalman, Hussain; Azadani, Javad G.; Izquierdo, Nezhueyotl; Low, Tony; Campbell, Stephen A.

In: Nanoscale, Vol. 10, No. 45, 07.12.2018, p. 21374-21385.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pandey, Sushil Kumar ; Alsalman, Hussain ; Azadani, Javad G. ; Izquierdo, Nezhueyotl ; Low, Tony ; Campbell, Stephen A. / Controlled p-type substitutional doping in large-area monolayer WSe 2 crystals grown by chemical vapor deposition In: Nanoscale. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 45. pp. 21374-21385.
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