Control of paratuberculosis: Who, why and how. A review of 48 countries

Richard Whittington, Karsten Donat, Maarten F. Weber, David Kelton, Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Suzanne Eisenberg, Norma Arrigoni, Ramon Juste, Jose Luis Sáez, Navneet Dhand, Annalisa Santi, Anita Michel, Herman Barkema, Petr Kralik, Polychronis Kostoulas, Lorna Citer, Frank Griffin, Rob Barwell, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo Moreira, Iva SlanaHeike Koehler, Shoor Vir Singh, Han Sang Yoo, Gilberto Chávez-Gris, Amador Goodridge, Matjaz Ocepek, Joseba Garrido, Karen Stevenson, Mike Collins, Bernardo Alonso, Karina Cirone, Fernando Paolicchi, Lawrence Gavey, Md Tanvir Rahman, Emmanuelle De Marchin, Willem Van Praet, Cathy Bauman, Gilles Fecteau, Shawn McKenna, Miguel Salgado, Jorge Fernández-Silva, Radka Dziedzinska, Gustavo Echeverría, Jaana Seppänen, Virginie Thibault, Vala Fridriksdottir, Abdolah Derakhshandeh, Masoud Haghkhah, Luigi Ruocco, Satoko Kawaji, Eiichi Momotani, Cord Heuer, Solis Norton, Simeon Cadmus, Angelika Agdestein, Annette Kampen, Joanna Szteyn, Jenny Frössling, Ebba Schwan, George Caldow, Sam Strain, Mike Carter, Scott Wells, Musso Munyeme, Robert Wolf, Ratna Gurung, Cristobal Verdugo, Christine Fourichon, Takehisa Yamamoto, Sharada Thapaliya, Elena Di Labio, Monaya Ekgatat, Andres Gil, Alvaro Nuñez Alesandre, José Piaggio, Alejandra Suanes, Jacobus H. De Waard

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Paratuberculosis, a chronic disease affecting ruminant livestock, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP). It has direct and indirect economic costs, impacts animal welfare and arouses public health concerns. In a survey of 48 countries we found paratuberculosis to be very common in livestock. In about half the countries more than 20% of herds and flocks were infected with MAP. Most countries had large ruminant populations (millions), several types of farmed ruminants, multiple husbandry systems and tens of thousands of individual farms, creating challenges for disease control. In addition, numerous species of free-living wildlife were infected. Paratuberculosis was notifiable in most countries, but formal control programs were present in only 22 countries. Generally, these were the more highly developed countries with advanced veterinary services. Of the countries without a formal control program for paratuberculosis, 76% were in South and Central America, Asia and Africa while 20% were in Europe. Control programs were justified most commonly on animal health grounds, but protecting market access and public health were other factors. Prevalence reduction was the major objective in most countries, but Norway and Sweden aimed to eradicate the disease, so surveillance and response were their major objectives. Government funding was involved in about two thirds of countries, but operations tended to be funded by farmers and their organizations and not by government alone. The majority of countries (60%) had voluntary control programs. Generally, programs were supported by incentives for joining, financial compensation and/or penalties for non-participation. Performance indicators, structure, leadership, practices and tools used in control programs are also presented. Securing funding for long-term control activities was a widespread problem. Control programs were reported to be successful in 16 (73%) of the 22 countries. Recommendations are made for future control programs, including a primary goal of establishing an international code for paratuberculosis, leading to universal acknowledgment of the principles and methods of control in relation to endemic and transboundary disease. An holistic approach across all ruminant livestock industries and long-term commitment is required for control of paratuberculosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number198
JournalBMC Veterinary Research
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 13 2019

Fingerprint

Paratuberculosis
paratuberculosis
Ruminants
Livestock
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
ruminants
Mycobacterium avium
Voluntary Programs
Public Health
funding
Central Asia
Central Africa
Central America
Endemic Diseases
Animal Welfare
public health
livestock
South America
Norway
South Africa

Keywords

  • Camelid
  • Cattle
  • Control
  • Deer
  • Goat
  • Paratuberculosis
  • Prevalence
  • Review
  • Sheep
  • Wildlife

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review

Cite this

Whittington, R., Donat, K., Weber, M. F., Kelton, D., Nielsen, S. S., Eisenberg, S., ... De Waard, J. H. (2019). Control of paratuberculosis: Who, why and how. A review of 48 countries. BMC Veterinary Research, 15(1), [198]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1943-4

Control of paratuberculosis : Who, why and how. A review of 48 countries. / Whittington, Richard; Donat, Karsten; Weber, Maarten F.; Kelton, David; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Eisenberg, Suzanne; Arrigoni, Norma; Juste, Ramon; Sáez, Jose Luis; Dhand, Navneet; Santi, Annalisa; Michel, Anita; Barkema, Herman; Kralik, Petr; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Citer, Lorna; Griffin, Frank; Barwell, Rob; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo; Slana, Iva; Koehler, Heike; Singh, Shoor Vir; Yoo, Han Sang; Chávez-Gris, Gilberto; Goodridge, Amador; Ocepek, Matjaz; Garrido, Joseba; Stevenson, Karen; Collins, Mike; Alonso, Bernardo; Cirone, Karina; Paolicchi, Fernando; Gavey, Lawrence; Rahman, Md Tanvir; De Marchin, Emmanuelle; Van Praet, Willem; Bauman, Cathy; Fecteau, Gilles; McKenna, Shawn; Salgado, Miguel; Fernández-Silva, Jorge; Dziedzinska, Radka; Echeverría, Gustavo; Seppänen, Jaana; Thibault, Virginie; Fridriksdottir, Vala; Derakhshandeh, Abdolah; Haghkhah, Masoud; Ruocco, Luigi; Kawaji, Satoko; Momotani, Eiichi; Heuer, Cord; Norton, Solis; Cadmus, Simeon; Agdestein, Angelika; Kampen, Annette; Szteyn, Joanna; Frössling, Jenny; Schwan, Ebba; Caldow, George; Strain, Sam; Carter, Mike; Wells, Scott; Munyeme, Musso; Wolf, Robert; Gurung, Ratna; Verdugo, Cristobal; Fourichon, Christine; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Thapaliya, Sharada; Di Labio, Elena; Ekgatat, Monaya; Gil, Andres; Alesandre, Alvaro Nuñez; Piaggio, José; Suanes, Alejandra; De Waard, Jacobus H.

In: BMC Veterinary Research, Vol. 15, No. 1, 198, 13.06.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Whittington, R, Donat, K, Weber, MF, Kelton, D, Nielsen, SS, Eisenberg, S, Arrigoni, N, Juste, R, Sáez, JL, Dhand, N, Santi, A, Michel, A, Barkema, H, Kralik, P, Kostoulas, P, Citer, L, Griffin, F, Barwell, R, Moreira, MAS, Slana, I, Koehler, H, Singh, SV, Yoo, HS, Chávez-Gris, G, Goodridge, A, Ocepek, M, Garrido, J, Stevenson, K, Collins, M, Alonso, B, Cirone, K, Paolicchi, F, Gavey, L, Rahman, MT, De Marchin, E, Van Praet, W, Bauman, C, Fecteau, G, McKenna, S, Salgado, M, Fernández-Silva, J, Dziedzinska, R, Echeverría, G, Seppänen, J, Thibault, V, Fridriksdottir, V, Derakhshandeh, A, Haghkhah, M, Ruocco, L, Kawaji, S, Momotani, E, Heuer, C, Norton, S, Cadmus, S, Agdestein, A, Kampen, A, Szteyn, J, Frössling, J, Schwan, E, Caldow, G, Strain, S, Carter, M, Wells, S, Munyeme, M, Wolf, R, Gurung, R, Verdugo, C, Fourichon, C, Yamamoto, T, Thapaliya, S, Di Labio, E, Ekgatat, M, Gil, A, Alesandre, AN, Piaggio, J, Suanes, A & De Waard, JH 2019, 'Control of paratuberculosis: Who, why and how. A review of 48 countries', BMC Veterinary Research, vol. 15, no. 1, 198. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1943-4
Whittington R, Donat K, Weber MF, Kelton D, Nielsen SS, Eisenberg S et al. Control of paratuberculosis: Who, why and how. A review of 48 countries. BMC Veterinary Research. 2019 Jun 13;15(1). 198. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1943-4
Whittington, Richard ; Donat, Karsten ; Weber, Maarten F. ; Kelton, David ; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose ; Eisenberg, Suzanne ; Arrigoni, Norma ; Juste, Ramon ; Sáez, Jose Luis ; Dhand, Navneet ; Santi, Annalisa ; Michel, Anita ; Barkema, Herman ; Kralik, Petr ; Kostoulas, Polychronis ; Citer, Lorna ; Griffin, Frank ; Barwell, Rob ; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo ; Slana, Iva ; Koehler, Heike ; Singh, Shoor Vir ; Yoo, Han Sang ; Chávez-Gris, Gilberto ; Goodridge, Amador ; Ocepek, Matjaz ; Garrido, Joseba ; Stevenson, Karen ; Collins, Mike ; Alonso, Bernardo ; Cirone, Karina ; Paolicchi, Fernando ; Gavey, Lawrence ; Rahman, Md Tanvir ; De Marchin, Emmanuelle ; Van Praet, Willem ; Bauman, Cathy ; Fecteau, Gilles ; McKenna, Shawn ; Salgado, Miguel ; Fernández-Silva, Jorge ; Dziedzinska, Radka ; Echeverría, Gustavo ; Seppänen, Jaana ; Thibault, Virginie ; Fridriksdottir, Vala ; Derakhshandeh, Abdolah ; Haghkhah, Masoud ; Ruocco, Luigi ; Kawaji, Satoko ; Momotani, Eiichi ; Heuer, Cord ; Norton, Solis ; Cadmus, Simeon ; Agdestein, Angelika ; Kampen, Annette ; Szteyn, Joanna ; Frössling, Jenny ; Schwan, Ebba ; Caldow, George ; Strain, Sam ; Carter, Mike ; Wells, Scott ; Munyeme, Musso ; Wolf, Robert ; Gurung, Ratna ; Verdugo, Cristobal ; Fourichon, Christine ; Yamamoto, Takehisa ; Thapaliya, Sharada ; Di Labio, Elena ; Ekgatat, Monaya ; Gil, Andres ; Alesandre, Alvaro Nuñez ; Piaggio, José ; Suanes, Alejandra ; De Waard, Jacobus H. / Control of paratuberculosis : Who, why and how. A review of 48 countries. In: BMC Veterinary Research. 2019 ; Vol. 15, No. 1.
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abstract = "Paratuberculosis, a chronic disease affecting ruminant livestock, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP). It has direct and indirect economic costs, impacts animal welfare and arouses public health concerns. In a survey of 48 countries we found paratuberculosis to be very common in livestock. In about half the countries more than 20{\%} of herds and flocks were infected with MAP. Most countries had large ruminant populations (millions), several types of farmed ruminants, multiple husbandry systems and tens of thousands of individual farms, creating challenges for disease control. In addition, numerous species of free-living wildlife were infected. Paratuberculosis was notifiable in most countries, but formal control programs were present in only 22 countries. Generally, these were the more highly developed countries with advanced veterinary services. Of the countries without a formal control program for paratuberculosis, 76{\%} were in South and Central America, Asia and Africa while 20{\%} were in Europe. Control programs were justified most commonly on animal health grounds, but protecting market access and public health were other factors. Prevalence reduction was the major objective in most countries, but Norway and Sweden aimed to eradicate the disease, so surveillance and response were their major objectives. Government funding was involved in about two thirds of countries, but operations tended to be funded by farmers and their organizations and not by government alone. The majority of countries (60{\%}) had voluntary control programs. Generally, programs were supported by incentives for joining, financial compensation and/or penalties for non-participation. Performance indicators, structure, leadership, practices and tools used in control programs are also presented. Securing funding for long-term control activities was a widespread problem. Control programs were reported to be successful in 16 (73{\%}) of the 22 countries. Recommendations are made for future control programs, including a primary goal of establishing an international code for paratuberculosis, leading to universal acknowledgment of the principles and methods of control in relation to endemic and transboundary disease. An holistic approach across all ruminant livestock industries and long-term commitment is required for control of paratuberculosis.",
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T1 - Control of paratuberculosis

T2 - Who, why and how. A review of 48 countries

AU - Whittington, Richard

AU - Donat, Karsten

AU - Weber, Maarten F.

AU - Kelton, David

AU - Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

AU - Eisenberg, Suzanne

AU - Arrigoni, Norma

AU - Juste, Ramon

AU - Sáez, Jose Luis

AU - Dhand, Navneet

AU - Santi, Annalisa

AU - Michel, Anita

AU - Barkema, Herman

AU - Kralik, Petr

AU - Kostoulas, Polychronis

AU - Citer, Lorna

AU - Griffin, Frank

AU - Barwell, Rob

AU - Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo

AU - Slana, Iva

AU - Koehler, Heike

AU - Singh, Shoor Vir

AU - Yoo, Han Sang

AU - Chávez-Gris, Gilberto

AU - Goodridge, Amador

AU - Ocepek, Matjaz

AU - Garrido, Joseba

AU - Stevenson, Karen

AU - Collins, Mike

AU - Alonso, Bernardo

AU - Cirone, Karina

AU - Paolicchi, Fernando

AU - Gavey, Lawrence

AU - Rahman, Md Tanvir

AU - De Marchin, Emmanuelle

AU - Van Praet, Willem

AU - Bauman, Cathy

AU - Fecteau, Gilles

AU - McKenna, Shawn

AU - Salgado, Miguel

AU - Fernández-Silva, Jorge

AU - Dziedzinska, Radka

AU - Echeverría, Gustavo

AU - Seppänen, Jaana

AU - Thibault, Virginie

AU - Fridriksdottir, Vala

AU - Derakhshandeh, Abdolah

AU - Haghkhah, Masoud

AU - Ruocco, Luigi

AU - Kawaji, Satoko

AU - Momotani, Eiichi

AU - Heuer, Cord

AU - Norton, Solis

AU - Cadmus, Simeon

AU - Agdestein, Angelika

AU - Kampen, Annette

AU - Szteyn, Joanna

AU - Frössling, Jenny

AU - Schwan, Ebba

AU - Caldow, George

AU - Strain, Sam

AU - Carter, Mike

AU - Wells, Scott

AU - Munyeme, Musso

AU - Wolf, Robert

AU - Gurung, Ratna

AU - Verdugo, Cristobal

AU - Fourichon, Christine

AU - Yamamoto, Takehisa

AU - Thapaliya, Sharada

AU - Di Labio, Elena

AU - Ekgatat, Monaya

AU - Gil, Andres

AU - Alesandre, Alvaro Nuñez

AU - Piaggio, José

AU - Suanes, Alejandra

AU - De Waard, Jacobus H.

PY - 2019/6/13

Y1 - 2019/6/13

N2 - Paratuberculosis, a chronic disease affecting ruminant livestock, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP). It has direct and indirect economic costs, impacts animal welfare and arouses public health concerns. In a survey of 48 countries we found paratuberculosis to be very common in livestock. In about half the countries more than 20% of herds and flocks were infected with MAP. Most countries had large ruminant populations (millions), several types of farmed ruminants, multiple husbandry systems and tens of thousands of individual farms, creating challenges for disease control. In addition, numerous species of free-living wildlife were infected. Paratuberculosis was notifiable in most countries, but formal control programs were present in only 22 countries. Generally, these were the more highly developed countries with advanced veterinary services. Of the countries without a formal control program for paratuberculosis, 76% were in South and Central America, Asia and Africa while 20% were in Europe. Control programs were justified most commonly on animal health grounds, but protecting market access and public health were other factors. Prevalence reduction was the major objective in most countries, but Norway and Sweden aimed to eradicate the disease, so surveillance and response were their major objectives. Government funding was involved in about two thirds of countries, but operations tended to be funded by farmers and their organizations and not by government alone. The majority of countries (60%) had voluntary control programs. Generally, programs were supported by incentives for joining, financial compensation and/or penalties for non-participation. Performance indicators, structure, leadership, practices and tools used in control programs are also presented. Securing funding for long-term control activities was a widespread problem. Control programs were reported to be successful in 16 (73%) of the 22 countries. Recommendations are made for future control programs, including a primary goal of establishing an international code for paratuberculosis, leading to universal acknowledgment of the principles and methods of control in relation to endemic and transboundary disease. An holistic approach across all ruminant livestock industries and long-term commitment is required for control of paratuberculosis.

AB - Paratuberculosis, a chronic disease affecting ruminant livestock, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP). It has direct and indirect economic costs, impacts animal welfare and arouses public health concerns. In a survey of 48 countries we found paratuberculosis to be very common in livestock. In about half the countries more than 20% of herds and flocks were infected with MAP. Most countries had large ruminant populations (millions), several types of farmed ruminants, multiple husbandry systems and tens of thousands of individual farms, creating challenges for disease control. In addition, numerous species of free-living wildlife were infected. Paratuberculosis was notifiable in most countries, but formal control programs were present in only 22 countries. Generally, these were the more highly developed countries with advanced veterinary services. Of the countries without a formal control program for paratuberculosis, 76% were in South and Central America, Asia and Africa while 20% were in Europe. Control programs were justified most commonly on animal health grounds, but protecting market access and public health were other factors. Prevalence reduction was the major objective in most countries, but Norway and Sweden aimed to eradicate the disease, so surveillance and response were their major objectives. Government funding was involved in about two thirds of countries, but operations tended to be funded by farmers and their organizations and not by government alone. The majority of countries (60%) had voluntary control programs. Generally, programs were supported by incentives for joining, financial compensation and/or penalties for non-participation. Performance indicators, structure, leadership, practices and tools used in control programs are also presented. Securing funding for long-term control activities was a widespread problem. Control programs were reported to be successful in 16 (73%) of the 22 countries. Recommendations are made for future control programs, including a primary goal of establishing an international code for paratuberculosis, leading to universal acknowledgment of the principles and methods of control in relation to endemic and transboundary disease. An holistic approach across all ruminant livestock industries and long-term commitment is required for control of paratuberculosis.

KW - Camelid

KW - Cattle

KW - Control

KW - Deer

KW - Goat

KW - Paratuberculosis

KW - Prevalence

KW - Review

KW - Sheep

KW - Wildlife

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DO - 10.1186/s12917-019-1943-4

M3 - Review article

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JO - BMC Veterinary Research

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