Control of Maillard-type off-flavor development in ultrahigh-temperature- processed bovine milk by phenolic chemistry

Smaro Kokkinidou, Devin G. Peterson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


The application of phenolic compounds to suppress Maillard chemistry and off-flavor development in ultrahigh-termperature (UHT)-processed milk during processing and storage was investigated. Five phenolic compounds were examined for structure-reactivity relationships (catechin, genistein, daidzein, 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene). The levels of key transient Maillard reaction (MR) intermediates (reactive carbonyl species) and select off-flavor markers (methional, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) were quantified by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/ToF, respectively. The addition of phenolic compounds prior to UHT processing significantly reduced the concentration of MR intermediates and related off-flavor compounds compared to a control sample (p < 0.05). All phenolic compounds demonstrated unique structure reactivity and, notably, those with a more activated A-ring for aromatic electrophilic substitution (catechin, genistein, and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene) showed the strongest suppression effect on the off-flavor markers and reactive carbonyl species. Sensory studies were in agreement with the analytical data. The cooked flavor intensity was rated lower for the recombination model samples of the catechin-treated UHT milk compared to the control UHT milk. Additionally, consumer acceptability studies showed catechin-treated UHT milk to have significantly higher liking scores when compared the control sample (Fisher's LSD = 0.728).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8023-8033
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Issue number32
StatePublished - Aug 13 2014


  • Maillard reaction
  • UHT milk
  • off-flavor inhibition
  • phenolic chemistry
  • reactive carbonyls species
  • thermal processing


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