Among adults, persons in control of a vehicle (i.e., drivers) are less likely to experience motion sickness compared to persons in the same vehicle who do not control it (i.e., passengers). This “driver-passenger effect” is well-known in adults, but has not been evaluated in children. Using a yoked-control design with seated pre-adolescent children, we exposed dyads to a driving video game. In each dyad, one child (the driver) drove the virtual vehicle. Their performance was recorded, and later shown to the other child (the passenger). Thus, visual motion stimuli were identical for the members of each dyad. During exposure to the video game, we monitored the quantitative kinematics of head and torso movements. Participants were instructed to discontinue participation immediately if they experienced any symptoms of motion sickness, however mild. Accordingly, the movements that we recorded preceded the onset of motion sickness. Results revealed that Passengers (73.08%) were more likely than Drivers (42.31%) to state that they were motion sick. Drivers tended to move more than passengers, and with a greater degree of multifractality. The magnitude of movement was greater among participants who later reported motion sickness than among those who did not. In addition, for the multifractality of movement a statistically significant interaction revealed that postural precursors of motion sickness differed qualitatively between Drivers and Passengers. Overall, the results reveal that control of a virtual vehicle reduces the risk of motion sickness among pre-adolescent children.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Portions of the data were presented at the 2011 Annual Conference of Physical Education and Sport Academic Societies in Taiwan. Thomas A. Stoffregen was supported by NSF-1901423, CHS: Medium: Prediction, Early Detection, and Mitigation of Virtual Reality Simulator Sickness.
Portions of the data were presented at the 2011 Annual Conference of Physical Education and Sport Academic Societies in Taiwan. Thomas A. Stoffregen was supported by NSF - 1901423 , CHS : Medium: Prediction, Early Detection, and Mitigation of Virtual Reality Simulator Sickness.
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.
- Motion sickness
- Postural instability theory
- Postural sway
- Sex differences