Human urinary DNA adducts may be useful surrogate biomarkers to estimate carcinogen exposure and activation, particularly if such adducts are of high selectivity from a specific carcinogen source. In this report, we provided evidence supporting tobacco use and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) being the dominant source for 3-methyladenine (3-mA), while nontobacco factors contribute significantly to 7-methylguanine and 1-methyladenine in the urine. Upon confirmation in human urine samples from larger populations in the future, urinary 3-mA may be used to estimate NNK bioactivation in smokers and to facilitate the development of a chemopreventive agent against NNK-induced carcinogenesis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
*E-mail: email@example.com. Tel: 352-294-8511. ORCID Chengguo Xing: 0000-0002-4266-6236 Funding The work was part-funded by R01CA193286 (C.X.), University of Minnesota Masonic Cancer pilot program (N.F. and C.X.), University of Florida Medicinal Chemistry Mass Spectrometry Support (C.X.), College of Pharmacy Frank Duckworth Endowment (C.X.), and University of Florida Health Cancer Center Startup fund (C.X.). Notes The authors declare no competing financial interest.
© 2018 American Chemical Society.