Ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) from Pseudomonas putida biotype B is a homodimeric enzyme catalyzing an allylic isomerization of Δ 5-3-ketosteroids at a rate of the diffusion-controlled limit. The dimeric interactions mediated by Arg72, Glu118, and Asn120, which are conserved in the homologous KSIs, have been characterized in an effort to investigate the roles of the conserved interface residues in stability, function and structure of the enzyme. The interface residues were replaced with alanine to generate the interface mutants R72A, E118A, N120A and E118A/N120A. Equilibrium unfolding analysis revealed that the ΔGUH2O values for the R72A, E118A, N120A, and E118A/N120A mutants were decreased by about 3.8, 3.9, 7.8, and 9.5 kcal/mol, respectively, relative to that of the wild-type enzyme. The interface mutations not only decreased the kcat/KM value by about 8- to 96-fold, but also increased the KD value for d-equilenin, a reaction intermediate analogue, by about 7- to 17.5-fold. The crystal structure of R72A determined at 2.5 Å resolution and the fluorescence spectra of all the mutants indicated that the interface mutations altered the active-site geometry and resulted in the decreases of the conformational stability as well as the catalytic activity of KSI. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the conserved interface residues contribute to stabilization and structural integrity of the active site in the dimeric KSI.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by grants from the program of the National Research Laboratory sponsored by the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology and from the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation, and G.H. Nam and B.H. Hong in part by the Brain Korea 21 project. The atomic coordinates of R72A were deposited with the entry code of 1C7H at Brookhaven Protein Data Bank.
- Conserved interface residues
- Dimeric enzyme
- Dimeric interactions
- Ketosteroid isomerase
- Site-directed mutagenesis