Guatemala is characterized by low contraceptive use rates and one of the highest fertility rates in the Western Hemisphere. These rates are particularly extreme for the poorest segment of the population and for the indigenous population. However, notable increases in contraceptive use have occurred within the past ten years, indicating that Guatemala may be on the precipice of significant demographic change. The purpose of this research is to enhance understanding of the modern contraceptive revolution in Guatemala through identification of the segments of the Guatemalan population at most need for contraceptive and family planning services. Using the most recently available survey data, the 2002 Reproductive Health Survey data set (RHS), classification trees are used to determine the women with greatest need for reproductive health services. The results highlight the persistent marginalization of the poor and the indigenous and provide further insight into the impact of education, place of residence and couple characteristics on contraceptive use and intent.