Continuous Monitoring of Subgrade Stiffness during Compaction

Syed Asif Imran, Manik Barman, Moeen Nazari, Sesh Commuri, Musharraf Zaman, Dharamveer Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


In the traditional compaction procedure of pavement subgrade, the level of compaction is checked through spot measurements of density and moisture contents at some selected locations. Such tests can leave soft spots undetected and could result in the premature failure of the pavement. In the intelligent compaction (IC) procedure, the compaction level of the entire compacted area can be estimated in real-time. The University of Oklahoma has developed one intelligent compaction tool known as Intelligent Compaction Analyzer (ICA). This paper presents two field demonstrations for evaluating the ICA in continuously measuring the dry density and modulus of stabilized subgrades. In the first study, it was demonstrated that the ICA can estimate the subgrade density comparable to Nuclear Density Gauge (NDG) measured density. The second project verified the ability of ICA in estimating the modulus of the stabilized subgrade. The ICA estimated moduli correlates well (R2 = 0.63) with the resilient moduli. The findings from these two demonstrations suggest that the ICA is capable of continuously measuring the density or modulus during the compaction of subgrade. Such real-time estimates of the subgrade stiffness can aid roller operators obtaining better overall quality by identifying and remediating under-compacted areas during the construction process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)617-625
Number of pages9
JournalTransportation Research Procedia
StatePublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank the Oklahoma Transportation Center (OkTC), Oklahoma City, OK and Volvo Construction Equipment (VCE), Shippensburg, PA, Oklahoma City, OK for their financial support to these research works. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Haskell Lemon Construction Co., Oklahoma City, OK and Silver Star Construction Company, Moore, OK during the field investigations.


  • Compaction
  • Density
  • Intelligent Compaction
  • Quality control during subgrade compaction
  • Resilient modulus
  • Subgrade
  • Subgrade modulus
  • Subgrade stiffness


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