Consumption of graham snacks in after-school snack programs based on whole grain flour content

Leila Sadeghi, Len Marquart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Purpose: The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that children consume at least three daily servings of whole grains. Data from a pilot after-school program indicated that graham snacks, containing 5 g whole wheat per serving, were consumed in the range of 73-88 percent, similar to the refined grain counterpart. This paper aims to examine whether a full serving (16 g) of whole grain delivered in a graham snack is acceptable as tested among children participating in an after-school snack program. Design/methodology/approach: Subjects included ~ 100 children (grades K-6) participating in after-school snack programs. Over eight weeks, children were offered graham snacks containing 5, 8, 12, and 16 g whole wheat flour per 30 g serving. Plate waste was used to measure graham snack consumption, as children placed their unfinished snacks in a receptacle and waste was measured after each session. At week nine, a subgroup of children participated in taste tests and rated each snack for liking on a nine-point hedonic scale. Another subgroup was enrolled in group interviews to provide input about their perceptions of the products' quality and suggestions for improvement. Findings: Consumption for the 5, 8, 12, and 16 g graham snacks was 80, 76, 79, and 80 percent, respectively. The taste tests results showed no significant difference in rating of the four-graham snacks. The focus groups indicated that overall, the products are well-liked, particularly for texture. Originality/value: This paper suggests that graham snacks can contribute a significant dietary source, nearly one full serving of whole grain when offered in children's natural environment through an after-school snack program.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)723-736
Number of pages14
JournalBritish Food Journal
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 21 2010


  • Cereal foods
  • Children (age groups)
  • Nutrition
  • United States of America


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