Construction and initial validation of the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS)

Helen A. Neville, Roderick L. Lilly, Richard M. Lee, Georgia Duran, La Vonne Browne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

430 Scopus citations


The purpose of this investigation was to develop a conceptually grounded scale to assess cognitive aspects of color-blind racial attitudes. Five studies on the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS) with over 1,100 observations provide initial reliability and validity data. Specifically, results from an exploratory factor analysis suggest a 3-factor solution: Unawareness of Racial Privilege, Institutional Discrimination, and Blatant Racial Issues. A confirmatory factor analysis suggests that the 3-factor model is a good fit of the data and is the best of the competing models. The CoBRAS was positively related to other indexes of racial attitudes as well as 2 measures of belief in a just world, indicating that greater endorsement of color-blind racial attitudes was related to greater levels of racial prejudice and a belief that society is just and fair. Self-reported CoBRAS attitudes were sensitive to diversity training.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-70
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of counseling psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2000


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