Hysteresis and constitutive nonlinearities are inherent properties of ferroelectric transducer materials due to the noncentrosymmetric nature of the compounds. In certain regimes, these effects can be mitigated through restricted input fields, charge- or current-controlled amplifiers, or feedback designs. For general operating conditions, however, these properties must be accommodated in models, transducer designs, and model-based control algorithms to achieve the novel capabilities provided by the compounds. In this paper, we illustrate the construction of inverse filters, based on homogenized energy models, which can be used to approximately linearize the piezoceramic transducer behavior for linear design and control implementation. Attributes of the inverse filters are illustrated through numerical examples and experimental open loop control implementation for an atomic force microscope stage.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received January 18, 2005; revised November 15, 2005. Manuscript received in final form June 12, 2006. Recommended by Associate Editor R. Moheimani. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grant CMS-0201560. The work of A. G. Hatch was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under Subcontract 1000-G-CF980. The work of R. C. Smith was supported in part by the NSF under Grant CMS-0099764 and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grants AFOSR-F49620-01-1-0107 and AFOSR-FA9550-04-1-0203.
- Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
- Control systems
- Dielectric hysteresis
- Ferroelectric devices