Console video games, postural activity, and motion sickness during passive restraint

Chih Hui Chang, Wu Wen Pan, Fu Chen Chen, Thomas A. Stoffregen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


We examined the influence of passive restraint on postural activity and motion sickness in individuals who actively controlled a potentially nauseogenic visual motion stimulus (a driving video game). Twenty-four adults (20.09 ± 1.56 years; 167.80 ± 7.94 cm; 59.02 ± 9.18 kg) were recruited as participants. Using elastic bands, standing participants were passively restrained at the head, shoulders, hips, and knees. During restraint, participants played (i.e., controlled) a driving video game (a motorcycle race), for 50 min. During game play, we recorded the movement of the head and torso, using a magnetic tracking system. Following game play, participants answered a forced choice, yes/no question about whether they were motion sick, and were assigned to sick and well groups on this basis. In addition, before and after game play, participants completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, which provided numerical ratings of the severity of individual symptoms. Five of 24 participants (20.83 %) reported motion sickness. Participants moved despite being passively restrained. Both the magnitude and the temporal dynamics of movement differed between the sick and well groups. The results show that passive restraint of the body can reduce motion sickness when the nauseogenic visual stimulus is under participants' active control and confirm that motion sickness is preceded by distinct patterns of postural activity even during passive restraint.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)235-242
Number of pages8
JournalExperimental Brain Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2013


  • Motion sickness
  • Passive restraint
  • Postural instability theory
  • Postural sway
  • Video games


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