Salmonella infection is a common public health problem that can become chronic and increase the risk of cancer. Live, mutated Salmonella is used to target cancer cells. However, few studies have addressed chronic Salmonella infection in vivo. AvrA is a Salmonella type-three secretion effector that is multifunctional, inhibiting intestinal inflammation and enhancing proliferation. β-catenin is a key player in intestinal renewal, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. We hypothesize that in Salmonella-infected intestine, AvrA chronically activates the β-catenin pathway and increases cell proliferation, thus deregulating the intestinal responses to bacterial infection. We followed mice with Salmonella infection for 27 wk and investigated the physiological effects and role of AvrA on β-catenin in chronically infected intestine. We found that AvrA persistently regulated β-catenin posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation and acetylation. Moreover, the upstream regulator Akt, transcription factors, T cell factors, nuclear β-catenin, and β-catenin target genes were enhanced in mice infected with Salmonella-expressing AvrA. AvrA has a chronic functional role in promoting intestinal renewal. In summary, we have uncovered an essential role of Salmonella AvrA in chronically activating β-catenin and impacting intestinal renewal in small intestine and colon. Our study emphasizes the importance of AvrA in chronic bacterial infection.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology|
|State||Published - Nov 15 2012|
- Acetylated β-catenin
- Phosphorylated β-catenin
- Stem cells
- T cell factor